The goal of this post is not to comprehensively defend each argument but simply to present what they are and next to them is a short description.

Kalam Cosmological Argument

  1. Whatever begins to exist has a cause
  2. The universe began to exist
  3. Therefore, the universe has a cause.

What this argument does is that it shows that prior to the existence of any physical objects such as planets and stars, the universe, as predicted by the Borde, Guth, Vilenkin Theorem, does not exist in the infinite past.  Therefore, it came to being from a singularity where all the laws of physics break down.  This attempts to show that God is the entity that caused the universe to exist.

Intelligent Design (Teleological Argument)

  1. Every design has to have a designer.
  2. The physical universe appears to have been designed.
  3. Therefore, there is a designer of the universe.

This argument aims to show that the universe has to fulfill a set of constants such as the force of gravity, to maintain its being as it is today.  It shows that on a scientific perspective, certain attributes of the physical universe has to be balanced at a razor’s edge for the universe to exist.

Moral Argument

  1. Objective moral values cannot exist unless God exists
  2. Objective moral values to exist
  3. Therefore, God exists

The moral argument aims to show that one cannot have any objective moral framework without appealing to a scale through which we measure what is good and bad.  It shows that while some cultures love their neighbors and others eat them, they can’t be both right on the moral framework.  This argument doesn’t say that belief in God is necessary for morality to exist.  Rather it says that God has to exist for morality to have any meaning.

The Argument from Miracles

  1. Miracles cannot exist unless God exists.
  2. Resurrecting a dead person to life is a miracle.
  3. Jesus rose from the dead.
  4. Therefore, God exists.
By definition, miracles are acts of God that superimposes itself from the natural course of nature.  The argument from miracles rely heavily on the historical evidence for the resurrection of Christ.  If it is possible for one to prove that Jesus died and rose from the dead, it then follows that there has to be a God to administer his resurrection.

Ontological Argument (Alvin Plantinga)

  1. It is possible that a maximally great being exists
  2. It is possible that a maximally great being exists in some possible worlds
  3. If a maximally great being exists in some possible worlds, he has to exist in all possible worlds.
  4. If a maximally great being exists in all possible worlds, he exists in the actual world.
  5. Therefore, a maximally great being exists.

This is perhaps the bloodiest argument yet properly understood, is extremely powerful.  This is my favorite argument because all other arguments for the existence of God is glued together by this argument.  The Cosmological Argument can only show that there’s a creator.  The design argument can only show that there is a designer.  The moral argument can only show that there is a moral scale to which we measure our morality.  The argument from miracles can only show that a certain being has the power to perform miracles.  The ontological argument glues them together by saying that the Maximally Great Being has to be the creator of the physical universe, the designer, and a morally perfect being, and can perform miracles. for all these are great making properties and a maximally great being should have all these.


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